Utterly Divine?

Utterly Divine?
By the Ifta Department of the Islamic Lifestyle Solutions

Undoubtedly the Kalaam (speech) of our Beloved Prophet is Haqq (truth) as he himself has stated that everything he utters is Haqq.

Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Amr  narrates, “I would transcribe everything I heard from Rasoolullah as I intended to memorize it. But the Quraish stopped me from doing so and said, ‘Do you transcribe everything you hear whereas Rasoolullah  is a man who speaks in anger and contentment as well?’ So, I stopped transcribing and mentioned this to the Holy Prophet . He gestured with his fingers to his mouth and said, ‘Write, for oath on He in whose control is my existence, nothing except Haqq is articulated from it.’.” (Abu Dawood, Part 2, pg. 158, published by Maktabah Haqqania, Multan)

The elegance of the Messenger’s  speech is unrivalled in the world of eloquence, he is without an equal and his qualities befit his personage. There is no need to adhere to concepts which are incorrect in order to prove the glory of Rasoolullah , as his excellence is evident and as clear as day. No human being can ever completely understand his glory, and those who claim contrary are ignorant of his honour and bereft of true knowledge and wisdom.

Thus, it is important for Muslims, especially scholars of Deen, to understand the implications of concepts they promote in relation to the true Maslak (path, teachings) of the Ahlus Sunnat wal Jama’ah. We cannot falsify ‘factual beliefs’ in an attempt to boost the status of Rasoolullah , as doing so has negative repercussions for our Maslak and on the veracity of Sunni scholarship. If a concept is flawed in relation to the defense of our Sunni Aqaaid (beliefs) and luminaries, responsible Sunni Ulama will not perpetuate the flawed concept. Rather, they will seek the truth and indeed ‘the truth shall set you free’. Ulama who have the best interest of Deen and Sunniyat will not revert to name-calling or mud-slinging if they are challenged by a study in Ilm. Rather they would present their opinion, justified or not, for due consideration in a manner befitting of the etiquette of knowledge. This is the true spirit of Sunniyat, anything less is the ranting and raving of those without acumen. It is unfortunate to also note that more than Ulama, some from the general public who don’t even know how to spell their names according to Makhaarij, tend to hide behind pseudonyms, and become keyboard warriors after gaining their degree in Islamic matters from Mufti Google or Master’s Degree in copying and pasting from Microsoft Word. Such ‘commendable’ behavior is startling to say the least!

O respected Ulama! For how long do we allow our Sunni stages and platforms to be dominated by people who have no credibility and understanding of our Aqaaid and Usool? YouTube sensations who borrow lines from Shi’ite Zaakireen or quick ‘Kumbaya’ points and moments from Wahabi/Salafi ‘Muftis’ (the irony of a Salafi being a Mufti?) are the pride of our Moulood/Urs gatherings? Rather than educating, our Sunni platforms feel more like entertainment with eachpassing day (or maybe the correct word is night thanks to the ‘vampire complex’ of our international Naath reciters). And all for more likes, shares and subscriptions on YouTube channels for ‘celebrities’ of Islam (which translate into personal financial gain for these stars)! Do we not have a responsibility to the many years we strived to acquire Ilm? Rasoolullah  has said, “Whosoever of you sees an evil, let him change it with his hand and if he is not able to do so, then (let him change it) with his tongue and if he is not able to do so, then with his heart and that is the weakest of faith.” (Muslim)


Is every utterance of Rasoolullah Wahi?
Every utterance of Rasoolullah  is not Wahi (divine revelation) from Allah .

 

Evidence from the Qur’an:

1. Allah states, “And he (Rasoolullah ) does not say anything by his own desire, it is but a divine revelation which is revealed to him.” (Surah Najm, verse 3-4)

Concerning the pronoun (it, or in Arabic, Huwa), Imaam Fakhruddeen Raazi  states, “The pronoun refers to the Qur’an and the verse means to state that the Qur’an is entirely Wahi.” (Tafseer Kabeer, Vol. 10, pg. 266, published by Darul Fikr, Beirut)

Imaam Raazi  confirms that the pronoun (it) refers specifically to the Qur’an i.e. every word of the Qur’an is Wahi.Imaam Nasafi  states in the commentary of this verse, “Whatever he (Rasoolullah ) conveys to you as the Qur’an, it is not words he has concocted from his personal views and whim; indeed it is entirely Wahi from Allah  which He reveals to him.” (Taseer Nasafi, Vol. 4, pg. 236, published by Maktabah Taufeeqiah, Cairo)


Imaam Nasafi  affirms that the Qur’an is referred to by the pronoun (it) i.e. every word of the Qur’an is Wahi. Allamah Ismail Haqqi  states in the commentary of this verse, “Whatever he (Rasoolullah ) conveys as Qur’an, it is (revealed) to him by Allah via the medium of Jibraeel.” (Tafseer Roohul Bayaan, Vol. 9, pg. 213, published by Maktabah Hanfia, Queta)

Allamah Ismail Haqqi asserts that the pronoun (it) refers specifically to the Qur’an i.e. every word of the Qur’an is Wahi.These and other respected Mufasirreen (exegetes) are agreed that the pronoun (it) specifically means the Qur’an. The pronoun is not used to refer or mean every utterance of Nabi is Wahi.
Allamah Ahmed Saawi Maliki  has written that all utterances and actions of Rasoolullah are Divine Wahi. (Haashiatus Saawi alal Jalaalain, Vol. 4, pg. 129, published by Maktabah Ishaa’tul Islam, Delhi)

This is generally what our orators also irresponsibly say from our stages.Refuting this misunderstanding, Imaam Raazi states that to accept the pronoun in reference to every utterance is contrary to the Zaahir (evident and visible) meaning and has no proof.

To establish every utterance and action of Rasoolullah as Wahi is fickleness because when the pronoun (it) means the Qur’an (as proven above in the elucidations of the scholars of Islam), then this notion that every utterance is Wahi will be contrary to the evident meaning of the verse. The Kuffaar and Mushrikeen would taunt the Qur’an (not the speech of Rasoolullah ) by saying, ‘These are the words of a Shaa’ir (poet)’. The Kuffaar used to level this accusation of being words of a poet against the Qur’an, therefore, the pronoun (it) in Surah An-Najm is taken to mean the speech of Rasoolullah , it will uniquely refer to the speech taunted as the words of a poet by the Kuffar and it is the words of the Qur’an which they taunted. (Extracted from Tafseer Kabeer, Vol. 10, pg. 266, published by Darul Fikr, Beirut)

Summary

The pronoun (it) in this verse of Surah Najm refers to the Qur’an, it does not refer to the speech of Rasoolullah . This is the verdict of several Mufassireen and scholars including Imaam Nasafi Hanafi , Imaam Fakhruddeen Raazi , Allamah Ismail Haqqi  Allamah Khaazin , Allamah Qurtubi  etc.

Ijtihaad of Rasoolullah

If the pronoun in this Surah is accepted to mean every utterance of Rasoolullah  is Wahi, this would necessitate that Rasoolullah  did not make Ijtihaad whereas this is contrary to the understanding of the Qur’an, in opposition to several sound Ahaadeeth and rulings of our scholars.

The majority of Fuqaha have accepted that Ijtihaad was made by Nabi  and the fact that he made Ijtihaad means that his every utterance is not Wahi. A scholastic explanation on the Ijtihaad of Rasoolullah  has been covered by the critically acclaimed commentator of the Qur’an and annotator of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, Allamah Ghulaam Rasool Saeedi  in Tibyaanul Qur’an, Vol. 11, pg. 483-7, published by Adabi Dunya, Delhi.

Zia-e-Ummah Allamah Karam Shah Azhari  (the student of Sadrul Afaadil Allamah Sayed Naeemuddeen Murdabadi ) states, “However, the majority of Fuqaha have accepted that Ijtihaad was made by Rasoolullah .” (Tafseer Zia-ul-Qur’an, Vol. 5, pg. 11, published by Zia-ul-Qur’an Publications, Lahore)

Ahadeeth concerning Ijtihaad of Rasoolullah  will be presented later, InshaAllah .

2. Allah  states, “O dear Prophet! Why do you forbid for yourself the things that Allah has made lawful for you? You wish to please some of your wives, and Allah is Oft Forgiving and Most Merciful,” (Surah At-Tahreem, Verse 1)

Discussing the revelation of the initial verses of Surah At-Tahreem, the Khalifah of Aala Hadhrath Imam Ahmed Raza Khan , Allamah Naeemuddeen Muradabadi Ashrafi  states, “Rasoolullah  came to the living quarters of Ummul Mu’mineen Sayyidah Hafsah  and with his permission, she went to visit her father Hadhrath Umar  who was ill.

The Holy Prophet  then allowed Sayyidah Maaria Qibtiyah  the honour to be of service to him. Ummul Mumineen was unpleased with this, Rasoolullah  then said to appease her, ‘I have made Maaria Haraam upon me and I give glad tidings to you that Abu Bakr and Umar will have authority over the affairs of the Ummah.’

This pleased her immensely and, in her elation, related the entire conversation to Ummul Mu’mineen Sayyidah A’ishah . This was the backdrop for the verse being revealed wherein it was said, why did you make Haraam upon you, Maariyah Qibtiyah , that which Allah  has made Halaal upon you to appease your wives Aisha and Hafsah ? According to another opinion the background for this verse being revealed is the following – when the Holy Prophet  would visit Ummul Mu’mineen Sayyidah Zainab bint Jahsh , she would present honey for him to partake.

This resulted in him spending a little more time at her living quarters and this was not appreciated by Aisha, Hafsah and others  and they became envious of her. They then consulted amongst themselves and agreed that when Rasoolullah  comes to them, they would tell him that the smell of Maghafeer (a type of libation) is felt and he disliked this smell. This is what happened and Nabi  knew their intent, hence he said, ‘Maghafeer was not near me, I have partaken of honey at the home of Zainab. I make it Haraam upon me.’.” (Tafseer Khazaainul Irfaan, pg. 1036, published by Maktabatul Madinah, Karachi)

Summary – If every utterance of Rasoolullah  was Wahi, why did Allah say in this verse, ‘Why do YOU forbid for yourself…’ This verse proves that every utterance of Rasoolullah  is not Wahi.

3. Allah states, “…Why did you give them permission (to remain behind)?” (Surah Tauba, Verse 43)
Imaam Fakhruddeen Raazi  has cited this verse as proof that Nabi  did make Ijtihaad (Tafseer Kabeer, Vol. 10, pg. 266, published by Darul Fikr, Beirut)

Summary –Rasoolullah  allowed some to not participate in the battle of Tabook, hence this verse was revealed. If every utterance of Nabi  is Wahi, why did Allah  say, ‘Why did YOU give them permission?’ Therefore, this verse proves that every utterance of Rasoolullah  is not Wahi.

4. Allah states, “And do not plead on behalf of the treacherous. And seek forgiveness from Allah, indeed Allah is oft forgiving, most merciful. And do not plead on behalf of those who deceive themselves. ” (Surah Nisaa, Verse 105-6)

These verses are cited by Sirajul Hind Hadhrath Shah Abdul Azeez Muhadith Dehlwi as evidence that every utterance is not Wahi. (Tohfa Ithna Ashariyah, pg. 457 (Farsi), published by Matba Nawalkishor, Lucknow)

5. Allah  states, “Had Allah not predestined a matter then, O Muslims, a terrible punishment would have come upon you due to the ransom you took from the disbelievers.” (Surah Anfaal, verse 68)

Allamah Sadrul Afaadil  states in the commentary of this verse, “Rasoolullah  seeking the counsel of the Sahaaba  in this Deeni matter is evidence for the Shar’ee institution of Ijtihaad.” (Tafseer Khazaainul Irfaan, pg. 351, published by Makatabtul Madinah, Karachi)

This verse has been cited by Hadhrath Shah Abdul Azeez Muhadith Dehlwi as evidence that every utterance of Rasoolullah  is not Wahi. (Tohfa Ithna Ashariyah, pg. 457 (Farsi), published by Matba Nawalkishor, Lucknow)

6. Allah  states, “And consult with them in the conduct of affairs and when you decide upon something, rely upon Allah, Indeed Allah loves those who trust (Him).” (Surah Aale Imraan, Verse 159)

Hadhrath Sadrul Afaadil  states in the commentary of this verse, “This establishes the permissibility of Ijtihaad and Qiyaas as valid evidence.” (Tafseer Khazaainul Irfaan, pg. 141, published by Maktabatul Madinah, Karachi)

This verse has been cited by Hadhrath Shah Abdul Azeez Muhadith Dehlwi  as evidence that every utterance of Rasoolullah  is not Wahi. (Tohfa Ithna Ashariyah, pg. 457 (Farsi), published by Matba Nawalkishor, Lucknow)

These six verses of the Holy Qur’an have been listed by scholars of Islam in evidence that every utterance of Rasoolullah  is not Wahi. If every utterance was Wahi, why did Nabi  make Ijtihaad or consult with the Sahaaba on matters?


Evidence from the Ahadeeth and works of Scholars

Hadhrath Shah Abdul Azeez Muhadith Delwhi  states, “With regards to the second matter, i.e. are all utterances of the Nabi  Wahi, according to both Aqli (deductive reasoning) and Naqli (transmitted) proof, this is false.” (Tohfa Ithna Ashariyah, pg. 456 (Farsi), published by Matba Nawalkishor, Lucknow)

Ghazali-e-Zamaa Allamah Sayed Ahmed Saeed Kaazmi Multani  states, “Respected Moulana, Wa alaikumus Salaam wa Rahmatullah! Your card arrived and I was grieved reading it because knowledge in this day and age is being lost. You wrote, ‘Our belief as the Ahle Sunnat is that every utterance of Rasoolullah  is Wahi’. This is not the belief of any from the Ahle Sunnat, in fact our belief on this matter is that every utterance of Rasoolullah  which is in relation to Prophethood and Risaalat is Wahi. The Qur’an and Hadeeth establish that there are two aspects to Nabi  –

(1) Prophethood

(2) Human Nature. Every utterance of Nabi  being revealed from Allah  is unique and specific to the first category (i.e. Prophethood) only. It is Kufr (disbelief) to not accept an utterance of Rasoolullah  which emanates from Prophethood. With regards to an utterance which emanates from his human nature, to not accept it is definitely not Kufr.” (Shio Ke Aqaaid-o-Nazaryaat, pg. 74, Maktabah Barkaatull Madinah, Karachi)

Faqih-e-Millat Hadhrath Mufti Jalaaludden Amjadi  states, “Besides these, there are many other incidents which prove that every utterance and action of Rasoolullah  is not Divine Revelation.

(Example 1) Bukhari Shareef, Vol. 2, pg. 674 states that (for a particular exigency) Rasoolullah performed the Janaazah Salaah of Abdullah ibn Ubai, so this verse was revealed, ‘And never offer funeral prayers for any of them who dies, nor stand by his grave.’ (Surah Tauba, Verse 84).

(Example 2) Concerning the grafting of dates (as per the hadith in Muslim, 2363), this famous statement of Rasoolullah  to the Sahaaba , ‘You know well concerning your worldly matters.’

(Example 3) The Holy Prophet  kept Taif besieged for a period of 18 days and it wasn’t conquered, on the counsel of Hadhrath Naufal ibn Muaawiyah , Rasoolullah lifted the siege (Zarqaani, Vol. 3, pg. 33).

We come to know that the siege of Taif wasn’t from Divine Revelation, otherwise Rasoolullah  would not lift the siege on the counsel of a Sahabi. From these evident proofs, it is proven as light is proven in day that every utterance and action of Rasoolullah  is not Divine Revelation. Therefore, those who have said that every utterance and action of Rasoolullah  is Divine Revelation either means in Deeni matters (that which is related to Prophethood) his every utterance and action is Divine Revelation as said in Ma’alimut Tanzeel, or their claim is Aam Makhsoos Minhul Ba’d.” (Fataawa Faizur Rasool, Vol. 1, pg. 122-3, published by Shabbeer Brothers, Lahore)

Conclusion

All of the above exhibit to the erudite with explicit elucidation from the scholars of Sunniyyat that the now commonly-held belief of every utterance of the Prophet as being Divine Revelation injunction is in contradistinction to the Qur’an and Sunnah. Thus, Muslims should tread cautiously and responsibly prior to echoing baseless sentiments of an emotional nature that are dressed-up as Sunni beliefs.

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