Da’wah Dimensions – The Qur’ānic Argument Against the Premise of Polytheism

Da’wah Dimensions – The Qur’ānic Argument Against the Premise of Polytheism

By Shaykh Faheem of the Islāmic Lifestyle Solutions with excerpts from the I.L.S Publication,
 “Defense Against Disaster – A Response to the Systematic Vilification of Islām and its Prophet (peace be apon him) in the Modern Age”

Greek mythology is famed for notions of polytheistic philosophies which espoused godheads such as “The Mighty Zeus”. It also promoted the idea that god had brothers and children even. These gods could come down in human form to visit their people and even copulate with human beings and the offspring born out of this relationship came to be recognized as demigods.

The idea of manlike gods has been promoted for eons in history as it was befitting the limited confines of human imagination. Whilst many religions today are still premised upon polytheistic dogmas promoting the idea of a godhead or a humanlike god in the form of His sons etc., Islām is a purely monotheistic faith which promotes the principle of Tauhīd (absolute monotheism) and advocates that God is One in worship and has no associates of any kind.

This is clear from the numerous verses located in the Qur’ānic corpus which explicitly state so. The Qur’ānic methodology to assist in breaking the barrier of the polytheistic argument -pertaining to the existence of more than one God- is one which promotes the idea by inducing the rational faculty in order to deduce the detriments of such an irrational disposition.

The Qur’ānic perspective on the subject of monotheism is summed up by the famous 112th chapter known as Sūrah Al-Ikhlās which children as young as 4 years old have committed to memory. The chapter states,

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّـهُ أَحَدٌ ﴿١﴾ اللَّـهُ الصَّمَدُ ﴿٢﴾ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ ﴿٣﴾ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ ﴿٤


Say (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)): “He is Allah, (the) One. (1) “Alla is As-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). (2) “He begets not, nor was He begotten; (3) “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.” (4)”

Time and again, the Qur’ān has appealed to the rational faculty in order for humankind to arrive at the conclusion that God exists alone without dependency on anyone for anything (112:2). The Islāmic view propagates God Almighty is not in need of a son or a partner in managing the affairs of this world. It is therefore incumbent upon us to elucidate the wisdom behind such a strong theologically-consistent baseline of the subject of Tauhīd  (in reference to God’s eternal oneness) in order to appreciate the logic of the Islāmic position on the matter. (this will be discussed in the follow up article –God Willing)

God Almighty has hinted to humankind, that the key to triumph over the notions of polytheism is predicated upon,

  1. Reflection on the order in the Cosmos, and
  2. ‘Faith-Guided Reason’

Whilst both are premised on the subjects of the rational faculty, the former (reflection on the cosmos) may be considered as the macro scale and the latter  (faith-guided reason) may be considered on the micro scale of contemplation. By this we imply that the macro scale of analysis is in relation to contemplation on the universe, and the micro scale is in relation to the introspection of the individual. This notion too, has been asserted in the Qur’ān with a hint of intellectual subtlety for the people of acumen as God Almighty states,


سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ ۗ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ


“We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their ownselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Quran) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things?”

(Sūrah Fussilat, 41:53)


Here, God Almighty merely implores the use of the rational faculty to those who explore and admire the vastness of space, or the biological analysis of the human being to the fact that the two are not to be considered as separate entities of study at all. Rather, that they share an interrelated connection which, if understood, will bring about depth of understanding the wonder of the working of God.

If the human mind is applied in the pursuit of this ultimate truth, will be able to locate that intrapersonal relationship which human beings share with the universe. In order to do so, one must become ‘master and commander’ of both these subjects (biology and cosmology), guided by the theological standpoints located in the Qur’ān. Only then will the person witness the merging of the junction of the two seas (of knowledge 18:60).

Thus the universe acts as means of reflection for the human being in order to deduce certain similarities (in relation to God’s magnificence as the Creator, having created) within us are ‘signs’ or in this case, ‘labels’ of the ‘owner’ whose design is clear for those minds which has been freed from the matrix of seeking to become god!

Therefore the Qur’ānic argument here, is that no ‘human being’, who ‘shares’ within His dominion of ‘creation’ can ever conjure up he idea of being a ‘creator’ simply because our existence is but a reflection of the ‘signs’ which God has ‘created’ within this vastness of space and within the atoms and molecules all around and within us!

God then, cannot be humanized nor associated with anyone or anything within the cosmos as everything within the universe are creations of God Almighty. This inevitable conclusion can be reached by a simple means of reflection and introspection on the inner dimensions of the human persona, followed by a cursory juxtaposing of the cosmos.

Thus, the Qur’ānic methodology to annihilate the foundations of the polytheistic philosophy lies in a deep reflection of the world around us, followed by an even deeper introspection of ourselves.  That contemplation will reveal conclude that everything around is systematically moving in harmony without any corruption whatsoever. Human beings however, cannot even manage a single country without the differing shifts in power and authority seizing control of every dispute.

This contemplation should channel our thoughts to the fact that if human beings cannot manage the simple creation without argumentation and propaganda etc. how then can the world exist in a single systematic way? The answer is that there is only One God, and not many, otherwise there would be argumentation over the management of the entire cosmos, and if human beings are willing to wage war and kill each other just to obtain who is the most powerful, one can only begin to imagine what state the universe would be in, if there were more than one God managing its affairs.

The Qur’ān makes this valid point by stating,


لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّـهُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ


“If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allāh, there would have been confusion in both! But glory to Allāh, the Lord of the Throne: (High is He) above what they attribute to Him!”

(Sūrah Al-Ambiyā, 21:22)


In the next article, we shall endeavour –God Willing- to produce the Qur’ānic argument from the perspective of the logical reasons why there can be no more than one God.


Shaykh Faheem

Co-Founder and Head of Da’wah, Media, Education and Publications of the Islāmic Lifestyle Solution’s

Durban, South Africa


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