It is permissible for a mother who is strong enough, to keep fast and also breast feed her baby provided there is no negative impact on her health or the baby’s. The fast will be valid as breast feeding does not break the fast. A principle of Fiqh in relation to fasting is,
الفطر مما دخل ليس مما خرج
Something which enters the belly of a person fasting breaks the fast, it is not broken by that which exits
Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) and Hazrat Ikramah state,
الصوم مما دخل ليس مما خرج
Fasting is broken by that which enters it is not broken by that which leaves
(Bukhari, Vol. 1, pg. 260, Published by Qadeemi Kutub Khana, Karachi)
Yes, if the mother is weak and she cannot complete both fasting and breast feeding her baby, or if there is danger to her health or the baby’s if she does both, then in this case she is excused from fasting in the month of Ramadaan. It is necessary she keeps Qadha for the fasts missed by her in Ramadaan.
Hazrat Anas ibn Maalik (Allah be pleased with him) states,
قَالَ رَخَّصَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ لِلْحُبْلَى الَّتِي تَخَافُ عَلَى نَفْسِهَا أَنْ تُفْطِرَ وَلِلْمُرْضِعِ الَّتِي تَخَافُ عَلَى وَلَدِهَا
Rasoolullah (peace be upon him) granted concession to pregnant women who fear for themselves, allowing them not to fast and to nursing mothers who fear for their infants
(Ibn Majah, pg. 120, Hadeeth no. 1668, Published by Qadeemi Kutub Khana, Karachi)
Tanweerul Absaar states,
او حامل او مرضع خافت بغلبة الظن على نفسها او ولدها
One who is pregnant or breast feeding is excused from fasting when there is overwhelming fear of harm to her or the child’s life
(Raddul Muhtaar, Vol. 2, pg. 422, Published by H.M. Saeed Company, Karachi).
Allah and His Rasool know best.
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